Conflict Resolution in the Sacred Scriptures

Conflict Resolution Meme

Jesus said to his disciples: “If your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have won over your brother.
If he does not listen, take one or two others along with you, so that ‘every fact may be established on the testimony of two or three witnesses.’ If he refuses to listen to them, tell the church. If he refuses to listen even to the church, then treat him as you would a Gentile or a tax collector. Amen, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Again, amen, I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything for which they are to pray, it shall be granted to them by my heavenly Father. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them” (Mt. 18:15-20).

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“Mondays with Mary” – The Esheth Yahil (Woman of Valor)

Besides Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant, which I have written about in a previous post, the image of her from Proverbs 31 as the Esheth Yahil or Woman of Valor has to be one of my favorite Old Testament Marian types.

I first learned about Proverbs 31 as a graduate student at Franciscan University of Steubenville in the fall of 2008. I can remember thinking the whole time as I was reading Proverbs 31 for homework that although this chapter was speaking about an ideal woman in the scriptures, it had to also speak of the Blessed Virgin Mary herself.

So how do we read this poem?

As it always with the literal sense of the scriptures, words point to things, in this case the literal words are pointing to a woman. This poem is modeled after a literal ancient woman. As it is with the spiritual sense, the things, in this case the ancient woman is pointing to other things or references.

First, the woman is pointing to the Church. The Church is always feminine for she is the Bride and Christ the Bridegroom. Second, the woman is pointing towards Mary, who is closely related to the Church for she cares and intercedes for it (we shall see this more clearly soon). Third, the woman in this poem is the everyday woman or women in general. Fourth, the woman points towards Wisdom, which in the scriptures has a feminine quality to it. And lastly, the woman is pointing towards Lady wisdom, which in turn points to the wisdom of the Holy Spirit, who directs and guides the Church.

Proverbs 31 incarcerates all the other Proverbs. This Hebrew poem is the exalted point for woman in the Scriptures for we see the ideal woman that runs throughout. What also runs through this poem is a strong nuptial (marriage) theme that we see in verse 10 – “Who can find a good wife? She is more precious than jewels.” This good wife is a woman [esheth] of valor [yahil]. She is not a warrior maiden, but a mother of valor, an image we can clearly see the Blessed Virgin Mary holding.

When we think of the word – “force” or “valor”, our mind automatically thinks of a battle or a fight, but this is not what the sacred author is giving to us. The woman in Proverbs 31 is not a warrior; she is the ideal wife and mother. The sacred author, possibly King Solomon himself, is challenging our assumptions of valor and heroism. The woman of Proverbs 31 is a woman who is faithful to her daily duties and performs them well, without complaint. The woman who does is a witness of true valor and heroism.

So now that we have a basic understanding of this poem, let us turn our gaze to how the Blessed Virgin Mary fulfills Proverbs 31. There are quite a few Marian references here, so lets take a look at a few.

Mary Ponders The Word of God

1. In verse 12 it states: “She does him good and not harm, all the days of her life” – in regards to Mary this verse speaks of her perpetual lack of sin which derives from her Immaculate Conception.

2. In verse 15 it says: “She rises while it is yet night and provides food for her household and tasks for her maidens” – here we see Mary as the Morning Star, which rises while others are still sleeping. As the Morning Star, she is Christ’s true herald of his word to the Church, the world, and all who will hear it.

3. In verse 20 it professes: “She opens her hand to the poor, and reaches out her hands to the needy” – The Blessed Mother as the Queen of Heaven cares for the spiritually poor. She brings the needs of the faithful to Jesus Christ, and as Mediatrix, grace flows from her hands. The grace initially comes from Christ himself then Mary dispenses that grace to the faithful.

4. In verse 22 it reads: “She makes herself coverings; her clothing is fine linen and purple” – although Mary while on Earth probably did not dress with fine linens, as the Queen of Heaven, she is now adorned with purple, a color of royalty.

5. In verse 26 it states: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of kindness is on her tongue” – here we can see that Mary’s fiat at the Annunciation and words at the Wedding Feast of Cana, “do whatever he tells you” are guided with wisdom. With God’s grace, she knows the right words for each situation.

6. In verse 27 it says: “She looks well to the ways of her household, and does not eat the bread of idleness” – Mary surpasses all woman for she is the tower of complete womanhood. The Blessed Mother is the true feminist. She stays busy maintaining her house, both in Nazareth, and now as the Mother of the Church.

7. In verse 28 it reads: “Her children rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her” – from the moment of her Visitation with her cousin Elizabeth, Mary has always been venerated as the Blessed Virgin. By praying the Hail Mary and the Rosary, we ask the Blessed Mother to intercede on our behalf with Jesus.

8. In Verse 31 it states: “Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates” – here we see the evolution of Christians toward their Mother. As Christians, she brings her children’s needs to the gates of Heaven.

For all the faithful and all humanity, Mary stands as our mother of valor. Without strapping on battle gear as would a warrior, the Blessed Mother, our Queen Mother, advocates for us to our Son and Our Lord Jesus Christ on a daily basis. The Blessed Virgin Mary is the one true Esheth Yahil.

The Sermon on the Mount: Jesus, the New Law, and the Kingdom of God

Over the next four Sundays, as we approach the Season of Lent, the Gospel Readings in the Western Rite of the Catholic Church will be read from the Gospel of St. Matthew, specifically readings from the Sermon on the Mount. Throughout the three-year lectionary cycle, we hear from the Sermon on the Mount many times. It’s an important section of St. Matthew’s Gospel and one that needs to be understood by all the faithful since it’s Jesus speaking about the Kingdom of God.

Below are excerpts from a paper I wrote on the Gospel of St. Matthew – “The Catechetical Gospel”, when I was a graduate student at the Franciscan University of Steubenville.

It is at the Sermon on the Mount that Jesus begins to draw the outline for the new covenant. He explains that the new kingdom will awaken the hearts of humanity and that it won’t be just laws and decrees as seen in the old covenant. It is through his teachings at the Sermon on the Mount and his teachings through the parables, where he will reach the heart of all who hear him.

As Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis says in Fire of Mercy, “Jesus is not only the new Moses but God himself, who inscribes the Law of his Sacred Heart no longer now on stone tablets but on the very hearts of men” (1996). Christianity is not a “religion of the book.” “Christianity is the religion of the “Word” of God, a word which is “not a written and mute word, but the Word which is incarnate and living” (Catechism of the Catholic Church 108, will be known as CCC).

The Sermon on the Mount covers chapters five, six, and seven in the Gospel of St. Matthew and is the first dialogue of five dialogues [the apostolic discourse; the parabolic discourse; the discourse on the Church and the discourse on eschatology] (Navarre Bible, page 22) where Christ begins to explain the new covenant and his outline for the “Kingdom.”

“In the Sermon on the Mount, and especially in the Beatitudes, Our Lord proclaimed the ruling maxims of His kingdom. It was a discourse – new, utterly un-heard of, and coming straight from heaven!” (Kneght, page 470) The Sermon on the Mount covers a variety of themes that assist us to focus to see that the New Law will redefine and supplant the Old Law. The themes Jesus covers are how a person is to direct themselves so they can enter the Kingdom of God, the ability to practice religious duties, trusting in the divine economy of God, the behaviors of God’s children and how they are to act towards one another; and the precepts for entrance into heaven (Navarre Bible, page 23).

Sermon on the Mount Icon

“The New Law or the Law of the Gospel is the perfection here on earth of the divine law, natural and revealed. It is the work of Christ and is expressed particularly in the Sermon on the Mount” (CCC 1965).

In chapter five, we see Jesus moving away from the crowds and ascending up the mount where his disciples are gathered around him as he sits. “Seeing the crowds, he went up on the mountain, and when he sat down his disciples came to him” (Matthew 5:1).  His movements up the mount and his sitting to teach are definitive acts placing himself as the Teacher of authority. Christ is stating that he is now the “Mediator between God and man.” Just as Moses once was the mediator between God and the people of Israel; now Christ takes on this role – he is the “New Moses.” (Leiva-Merikakis, page 181) And just as Moses sat in judgment; now Christ “sits” in the cathedra where he teaches the Truth, which he is himself.

On the Sermon on the Mount, Christ begins his dialogue with the Beatitudes. The Beatitudes are “the gateway to the Sermon on the Mount.” The Beatitudes are not just for different people who are seeking salvation. They are to be reached by all those who desire to follow Christ and the religious and moral outline that he sets forth. The Beatitudes are requirements for everyone who wishes to follow Christ. Each of the Beatitudes does not represent a single person, just like salvation is not meant for one person or a group of persons, but is available to all who follow Christ.

It must be understood that the Beatitudes are defined as eschatological [theology of the last things], since the promise of salvation lies in the world to come and not in this veil of tears. (Navarre Bible, page 56)  The Beatitudes are the fulfillment of the Ten Commandments, but unlike the Commandments of the Old Testament, the Beatitudes now give us the ability and potential in this world to be God-like.

Leiva-Merikakis states, “The Beatitudes are no longer now negative commands that forbid sin, as the first Decalogue largely was, in keeping with its nature as the minimum necessary to obey God.  The Beatitudes are the carta magna, as it were, that invites the poor mortals to be like God here…”

The promises laid down by Christ reach their apex in the Beatitudes. “In the Beatitudes, the New Law fulfills the divine promises by elevating them and orientating them toward the “kingdom of heaven.” (CCC 1967)  We see in the Beatitudes the infancy outline of how to reach perfection in Christianity. In seeking out this perfection through the Beatitudes we are trying to imitate the behavior of the Divine, which will help us on our way to be happy, as God is happy. “Be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect” (Matthew 5:48).


Catholic Church. (2000). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City , Vatican : Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

Knecht, D. B. (2003). A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture. Rockford, Ill: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc.

Leiva-Merikakis, E. (1996). Fire of Mercy Heart of the Word . San Francisco, CA : Ignatius Press.

The Navarre Bible. (2000). St Matthew. Dublin , 8, Ireland : Four Courts Press

12 Great Quotes from Dei Verbum

Over the past three weeks, I have been teaching a course for the Diocese of Phoenix Diaconate Program titled, Scripture in the Life of the Church. One of the two documents we read and discussed is the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation from the Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum.

I am no stranger to this document from Vatican II, since I have read it nearly ten times since the Fall of 2008. While in graduate school at Franciscan University of Steubenville, I read Dei Verbum at least five times for five different courses. If you ask any of my peers who studied with me during the years of 2008-2010, they will tell you the same thing, we read this document many times! It’s one of those great documents that should be read over and over again.

If you have not read it yet, please take the time to read it (it’s not very long). If you are fearful to read it in the case that you may not fully understand it, then seek out someone who has read it, so that they may explain the rich content within its pages. You will come to love the Sacred Scriptures more and have a passion to pray and study the Scriptures in your daily life.

Dei Verbum cover

Below are 12 great quotes from my studies. The number in the parentheses is the article number from the document.

1. “…This present council wishes to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by hearing the messages of salvation the whole world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it may love” (1).

2. “The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive covenant, will never pass away and we now await no further new public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ (see 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13)” (4).

3. “This sacred tradition, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the Old and New Testaments are like a mirror in which the pilgrim Church on earth looks at God, from whom she has received everything, until she is brought finally to see Him as He is, face to face (see 1 John 3:2)” (7).

4. “Therefore both sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture are to be accepted and venerated with the same sense of loyalty and reverence” (9).

5. “Sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church…But the task of authentically interpreting the word of God, whether written or handed on, has been entrusted exclusively to the living teaching office of the Church, whose authority is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ” (10).

6. “…The books of both the Old and New Testaments in their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and canonical because written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their author and have been handed on as such to the Church herself…the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully, and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings for the sake of salvation” (11).

7. “The plan of salvation foretold by the sacred authors, recounted and explained by them, is found as the true word of God in the books of the Old Testament: these books, therefore, written under divine inspiration, remain permanently valuable…The principal purpose to which the plan of the old covenant was directed was to prepare for the coming of Christ…” (14-15).

8. “The Church has always venerated the divine Scriptures just as she venerates the body of the Lord, since, especially in the sacred liturgy, she unceasingly receives and offers to the faithful the bread of life from the table both of God’s word and of Christ’s body” (21).

9. “Easy access to Sacred Scripture should be provided for all the Christian faithful” (22).

10. “…And so the study of the sacred page is, as it were, the soul of sacred theology” (24).

11. “Therefore, all the clergy must hold fast to the Sacred Scriptures through diligent sacred reading and careful study, especially the priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and catechists who are legitimately active in the ministry of the word” (25).

12. “…Prayer should accompany the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that God and man may talk together; for “we speak to Him when we pray; we hear Him when we read the divine saying” (25).

For more information on studying and praying with the Sacred Scriptures, please see the post, Scripture in the Life of the Church

“Mondays with Mary” – ‘Mary, Mother of God’s Word’

As I was preparing to teach Section 1 of Pope Benedict’s Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Verbum Domini, I read his striking words on how Mary play’s such an important part in knowing the deep realities of the Word of God. It is through her “Yes” that we come to know Jesus Christ and it is through her “Yes” that the new covenant begins. From the Annunciation to Pentecost Sunday, Mary is the obedient woman of faith always seeking and ready to do the will of God. She is open and prepared to hear the Word of God in her heart and mind.

As Catholics, we should always be striving to be more like Mary and her Fiat (“Yes”) towards God. The Church is first Marian before she is Petrine. Hans Urs von Balthasar said, “Before men were placed into office, the whole Church was present in Mary.” The Marian dimension allows the Petrine to exist in the Church.

I suggest you read and pray through the words of Pope Benedict XVI. He opens our hearts and minds to Mary and her relationship to the Word of God as he says,

“In our day the faithful need to be helped to see more clearly the link between Mary of Nazareth and the faith-filled hearing of God’s word. I would encourage scholars as well to study the relationship between Mariology and the theology of the word. This could prove most beneficial both for the spiritual life and for theological and biblical studies. Indeed, what the understanding of the faith has enabled us to know about Mary stands at the heart of Christian truth. The incarnation of the word cannot be conceived apart from the freedom of this young woman who by her assent decisively cooperated with the entrance of the eternal into time. Mary is the image of the Church in attentive hearing of the word of God, which took flesh in her. Mary also symbolizes openness to God and others; an active listening which interiorizes and assimilates, one in which the word becomes a way of life.

Here I would like to mention Mary’s familiarity with the word of God. This is clearly evident in the Magnificat. There we see in some sense how she identifies with the word, enters into it; in this marvelous canticle of faith, the Virgin sings the praises of the Lord in his own words: “The Magnificat – a portrait, so to speak, of her soul – is entirely woven from threads of Holy Scripture, threads drawn from the word of God. Here we see how completely at home Mary is with the word of God, with ease she moves in and out of it. She speaks and thinks with the word of God; the word of God becomes her word, and her word issues from the word of God. Here we see how her thoughts are attuned to the thoughts of God, how her will is one with the will of God. Since Mary is completely imbued with the word of God, she is able to become the Mother of the Word Incarnate.”

Mary Ponders The Word of God

Furthermore, in looking to the Mother of God, we see how God’s activity in the world always engages our freedom, because through faith the divine word transforms us. Our apostolic and pastoral work can never be effective unless we learn from Mary how to be shaped by the working of God within us: “devout and loving attention to the figure of Mary as the model and archetype of the Church’s faith is of capital importance for bringing about in our day a concrete paradigm shift in the Church’s relation with the word, both in prayerful listening and in generous commitment to mission and proclamation.”

As we contemplate in the Mother of God a life totally shaped by the word, we realize that we too are called to enter into the mystery of faith, whereby Christ comes to dwell in our lives. Every Christian believer, Saint Ambrose reminds us, in some way interiorly conceives and gives birth to the word of God: even though there is only one Mother of Christ in the flesh, in the faith Christ is the progeny of us all. Thus, what took place for Mary can daily take place in each of us, in the hearing of the word and in the celebration of the sacraments.”

If you have been reading “Mondays with Mary” over the weeks in September, October, and November, you would have seen what Pope Benedict XVI asks for in this section. He says, “I would encourage scholars as well to study the relationship between Mariology and the theology of the word. This could prove most beneficial both for the spiritual life and for theological and biblical studies.”

By no means am I a biblical scholar, but I have tried to provide my readers with an understanding between Mariology and the theology of the word in the blog posts about Mary in the Old Testament and New Testament. If you have not read these previous posts, it’s my hope that you can read them soon.

Mary’s role in Salvation History is fundamentally important for the life of the Church, however, her role in relation to the Word of God is just as important. Next time you read the Scriptures on our own, read them in the daily missal at Mass, or just listen to them at Mass, ask that the Blessed Mother help you to take the Word of God to your heart and say – “Yes!”

“Mondays with Mary” – Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant

Not excluding the Esheth Yahil (Woman of Valor) from Proverbs 31, Mary as the Ark of the Covenant has to be one of the greatest Old Testament types of Mary.

Ark of the CovenantThe original Ark of the Covenant was the sacred chest that contained the presence of God for the Israelites. The Ark was two and half cubits (3.75 feet, 1.1 meters) in length and one and one half cubits (1.5 feet, 0.5 meters) in height and width. The Ark was built from acacia wood and covered inside and out with gold platting. On the corners were golden rings so that poles made from acacia wood and gilded with gold could be inserted in order to carry the ark without it being touched. The lid was made of a solid slab of gold. The gold slab formed the mercy seat and on either side was two cherubim angels made from gold and facing one another. God gave the description and “blue prints” of how the Ark of the Covenant was to be built (read Exodus 25:10-22).

The Ark of the Covenant contained the Ten Commandments, which were written on stone tablets. These were the second version of the tablets (read Deuteronomy 10:5) since Moses destroyed the first tablets, the ones God divinely carved, when he threw them at the Golden Calf. Also in the Ark was a gold vessel (similar to a ciborium) that held the manna that fed the Israelites in the desert (read Exodus 16:34), and the staff of Aaron that blossomed (read Hebrews 9:4).

The Ark of the Covenant was the visible sign of God’s presence and protection among the sons and daughters of Israel. A cloud, which also represented God’s presence, would overshadow the Ark. This cloud became known as the “shekinah” which means “Divine Presence” or “Divine Glory.”

In the New Testament, Mary, the Virgin of Nazareth, becomes the New Ark of the Covenant. The New Covenant (Testament) is a covenant that is everlasting between God and all of humanity through the person of Jesus Christ. Mary becomes the sacred vessel for she is immaculately created by God to carry God himself in the person of Jesus Christ. Mary is the Theotokos – she is the God-Bearer.

Mary as New Ark of the Covenant - Icon

Just as the original Ark was layered with gold, a precious metal that does not fade, so Mary the new Ark of the covenant through her Immaculate Conception would not fade. At the Annunciation, the Holy Spirit overshadows Mary, the New Ark of the Covenant, just as the “shekinah” overshadowed the Ark of the Covenant.

Jesus is the fulfillment of the articles that were placed in the Ark of the Covenant. He is the New Law (Beatitudes) that fulfills the Old Law, the Ten Commandments. He is the fulfillment of the manna that came down from heaven that fed the Israelites. Jesus is the living bread that came down from heaven (see John 6:51) to feed all of us with his Holy Eucharist (read John 6:22-71). He is the fulfillment of the staff of Aaron because Aaron was the first high priest of the Levitical Priesthood. Jesus is the Eternal and Royal High Priest.

In his essay, The Mystery of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Old Testament, Fr. Stefano Manelli, F.I, states,

“…Mary is she “who bears in herself not the word of God written ‘on stone’ (the tablets of the Law), but the very Word of God, the Logos, made flesh, become her son; who carries in herself ‘not the flowering rod of Aaron, but the flower of Jesse’; who carries in herself not the manna, figure of the Eucharist, but the very Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of the Eucharistic Christ, adored by the golden cherubim!”

As the Ark of the Covenant was a sign of God’s protection in the Old Testament for the Israelites, and was carried into battle at times, so too the New Ark of the Covenant, should be a true sign of God’s presence in the world and protecting the Church militant here on Earth as we battle Satan, the evil he proposes, and those who attack the Catholic Church.

Mary, the New Ark of the Covenant…Pray For Us!


Hahn, Scott, Catholic Bible Dictionary. Doubleday Religion, 2009.

Miravalle, Mark, Introduction to Mary. Queenship Publishing, 2006.

Miravalle, Mark, Mariology – A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. Seat of Wisdom Books – Queenship Publishing, 2007.

Scripture in the Life of the Church

This past Tuesday, I began teaching a five-week course titled, “Scripture in the Life of the Church” for a cohort of men in the Diaconate Program here in the Diocese of Phoenix. The main two documents we are studying and discussing are: Dei Verbum, The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation from the Second Vatican Council and the Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation of the Holy Father Benedict XVI, Verbum Domini.  I have read both of these documents numerous times and think they are fantastic texts. Anyone serious about the Sacred Scriptures should read them.

As I was preparing my lesson plan for the first class, it hit me that writing a blog post on the importance of the scriptures and providing good faithful Scripture studies and texts on the Scriptures would not only be timely this week, but beneficial as well.

Reading, studying, and praying the Sacred Scriptures is fundamental for any good Christian. The two aforementioned documents and Providentissimus Deus, a biblical document written by Pope Leo XIII all say the soul of sacred theology is the sacred page. The Sacred Scriptures are the life-giving principal of theology!

In Providentissimus Deus, Leo says, “It is extremely desirable and even necessary that the use of Scripture influence the whole of the study of theology, becoming, as it were, its soul.” Sometime after Pope Benedict XVI was elected to the Papacy, a reporter asked him what subject should a seminarian study first, his reply, the Holy Scriptures.

As Christians, but specifically us in the Catholic tradition, should be reading the Scriptures more and more each day, for it was the Catholic Church that gathered the sacred books and developed the Canon (collection of books in the Bible) that we have today. The Holy Bible is ours. We should know it the best!

Not only should we study the Scriptures, but we need to pray with them as well. Dei Verbum states, “…prayer should accompany the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that God and man may talk together; for “we speak to Him when we pray; we hear Him when we read the divine saying” (#25). This is commonly known as Lectio Divina.

Furthermore, Verbum Domini states, “The Synod frequently insisted on the need for a prayerful approach to the sacred text as a fundamental element in the spiritual life of every believer…”(#86). St. Augustine of Hippo says, “Your prayer is the word you speak to God. When you read the Bible, God speaks to you; when you pray, you speak to God.”

The great early Church Father and Doctor of the Church, Saint Jerome said, “Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.” Simply put, if you don’t know the Scriptures then you don’t know Jesus Christ.

The studies and texts below have been collected from my own experiences reading, studying, and praying the Sacred Scriptures. Please feel free to add to my list in the comment box.

Catholic Bible Studies:

1. The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology – Genesis to Jesus and other Bible Studies – Scott Hahn

2. The Great Adventure Bible Timeline – Jeff Cavins 

3. Cor Ardens Catholic Scripture Study – Gayle Somers

4. The Sacred Page – Michael Barber, Brant Pitre, and John Bergsma 


6. Defenders of the Catholic Faith – Steve Ray

7. Catholic Scripture Study International – Gayle Buckley

8. Logos Bible Software – Verbum

Biblical Texts:

  1. The Holy Bible – Revised Standard Edition, Second Catholic Edition, Ignatius Press
  2. The Catholic Church and the Bible – Peter M.J. Stravinskas, Ignatius Press
  3. Catholic Bible Dictionary – Scott Hahn, Doubleday Religion
  4. Making Sense Out of Scripture – Mark P. Shea, Basilica Press
  5. Scripture in the Tradition – Henri De Lubac, Herder & Herder
  6. Jesus of Nazareth, Parts 1, 2 & 3 – Pope Benedict XVI, Ignatius Press
  7. The Meaning of Tradition – Yves Congar, O.P., Ignatius Press
  8. Praying the Bible – Mariano Magrassi, The Liturgical Press
  9. The Navarre Bible Biblical Commentaries, Four Courts Press
  10. A Father Who Keeps His Promises – Scott Hahn, Servant Publications
  11.  A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture – Bishop Frederick Justus Kneght, D.D. (from the 16th German Edition), Tan Books and Publishers
  12.  Inside the Bible: An Introduction to Each Book of the Bible – Kenneth Baker, S.J., Ignatius Press
  13.  A Primer on Divine Revelation – Rev. Dwight P. Campbell, Scepter Publishers, Inc
  14. Where We Got the Bible, Our Debt to the Catholic Church – Henry G. Graham, Catholic Answers